What Should, Could, Be Done to stop this habit.
As a child in the United States (revealing my age here!), the no littering laws were established. Stiff fines for littering that were enforced--enough so that I remember it. I think it took decades for it to really sink in and become habit. I think everything in a child's environment needs to reinforce the automatic reaction to even the thought of littering--talking about it in school, signs everywhere, TV, etc such that it becomes a visible part of the culture. I remember it was a big campaign. Not having this habit established doesn't mean the people are bad or even backward, it just means that the government hasn't yet dedicated the funds and means to impress it on the minds of the people so that habits are changed.